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Wallis Budge believed that Egyptian commoners were polytheistic, but knowledge of the true monotheistic nature of the religion was reserved for the elite, who wrote the wisdom literature.
In , Erik Hornung published a study [Note 3] rebutting these views. He points out that in any given period many deities, even minor ones, were described as superior to all others.
He also argues that the unspecified "god" in the wisdom texts is a generic term for whichever deity is relevant to the reader in the situation at hand.
Henotheism , Hornung says, describes Egyptian religion better than other labels. An Egyptian could worship any deity at a particular time and credit it with supreme power in that moment, without denying the other gods or merging them all with the god that he or she focused on.
Hornung concludes that the gods were fully unified only in myth, at the time before creation, after which the multitude of gods emerged from a uniform nonexistence.
Hornung's arguments have greatly influenced other scholars of Egyptian religion, but some still believe that at times the gods were more unified than he allows.
It equated the single deity with the sun and dismissed all other gods. Then, in the backlash against Atenism, priestly theologians described the universal god in a different way, one that coexisted with traditional polytheism.
The one god was believed to transcend the world and all the other deities, while at the same time, the multiple gods were aspects of the one.
According to Assmann, this one god was especially equated with Amun, the dominant god in the late New Kingdom, whereas for the rest of Egyptian history the universal deity could be identified with many other gods.
Allen says that coexisting notions of one god and many gods would fit well with the "multiplicity of approaches" in Egyptian thought, as well as with the henotheistic practice of ordinary worshippers.
He says that the Egyptians may have recognized the unity of the divine by "identifying their uniform notion of 'god' with a particular god, depending on the particular situation.
Egyptian writings describe the gods' bodies in detail. They are made of precious materials; their flesh is gold, their bones are silver, and their hair is lapis lazuli.
They give off a scent that the Egyptians likened to the incense used in rituals. Some texts give precise descriptions of particular deities, including their height and eye color.
Yet these characteristics are not fixed; in myths, gods change their appearances to suit their own purposes.
The Egyptians' visual representations of their gods are therefore not literal. They symbolize specific aspects of each deity's character, functioning much like the ideograms in hieroglyphic writing.
His black coloring alludes to the color of mummified flesh and to the fertile black soil that Egyptians saw as a symbol of resurrection.
Most deities were depicted in several ways. Hathor could be a cow, cobra, lioness, or a woman with bovine horns or ears.
By depicting a given god in different ways, the Egyptians expressed different aspects of its essential nature. These forms include men and women anthropomorphism , animals zoomorphism , and, more rarely, inanimate objects.
Combinations of forms , such as deities with human bodies and animal heads, are common. Certain features of divine images are more useful than others in determining a god's identity.
The head of a given divine image is particularly significant. In contrast, the objects held in gods' hands tend to be generic. The forms in which the gods are shown, although diverse, are limited in many ways.
Many creatures that are widespread in Egypt were never used in divine iconography. Others could represent many deities, often because these deities had major characteristics in common.
For instance, the horse, which was only introduced in the Second Intermediate Period c. Similarly, the clothes worn by anthropomorphic deities in most periods changed little from the styles used in the Old Kingdom: a kilt, false beard, and often a shirt for male gods and a long, tight-fitting dress for goddesses.
The basic anthropomorphic form varies. Child gods are depicted nude, as are some adult gods when their procreative powers are emphasized.
In official writings, pharaohs are said to be divine, and they are constantly depicted in the company of the deities of the pantheon. Each pharaoh and his predecessors were considered the successors of the gods who had ruled Egypt in mythic prehistory.
The few women who made themselves pharaohs, such as Hatshepsut , connected themselves with these same goddesses while adopting much of the masculine imagery of kingship.
For these reasons, scholars disagree about how genuinely most Egyptians believed the king to be a god. He may only have been considered divine when he was performing ceremonies.
However much it was believed, the king's divine status was the rationale for his role as Egypt's representative to the gods, as he formed a link between the divine and human realms.
These things were provided by the cults that the king oversaw, with their priests and laborers. Although the Egyptians believed their gods to be present in the world around them, contact between the human and divine realms was mostly limited to specific circumstances.
The ba of a god was said to periodically leave the divine realm to dwell in the images of that god. In these states, it was believed, people could come close to the gods and sometimes receive messages from them.
The Egyptians therefore believed that in death they would exist on the same level as the gods and understand their mysterious nature.
Temples, where the state rituals were carried out, were filled with images of the gods. The most important temple image was the cult statue in the inner sanctuary.
These statues were usually less than life-size and made of the same precious materials that were said to form the gods' bodies.
The gods residing in the temples of Egypt collectively represented the entire pantheon. To insulate the sacred power in the sanctuary from the impurities of the outside world, the Egyptians enclosed temple sanctuaries and greatly restricted access to them.
People other than kings and high priests were thus denied contact with cult statues. The more public parts of temples often incorporated small places for prayer, from doorways to freestanding chapels near the back of the temple building.
Egyptian gods were involved in human lives as well as in the overarching order of nature. This divine influence applied mainly to Egypt, as foreign peoples were traditionally believed to be outside the divine order.
In the New Kingdom, when other nations were under Egyptian control, foreigners were said to be under the sun god's benign rule in the same way that Egyptians were.
Thoth, as the overseer of time, was said to allot fixed lifespans to both humans and gods. Several texts refer to gods influencing or inspiring human decisions, working through a person's "heart"—the seat of emotion and intellect in Egyptian belief.
Deities were also believed to give commands, instructing the king in the governance of his realm and regulating the management of their temples.
Egyptian texts rarely mention direct commands given to private persons, and these commands never evolved into a set of divinely enforced moral codes.
Because deities were the upholders of maat , morality was connected with them. For example, the gods judged humans' moral righteousness after death, and by the New Kingdom, a verdict of innocence in this judgment was believed to be necessary for admittance into the afterlife.
In general, however, morality was based on practical ways to uphold maat in daily life, rather than on strict rules that the gods laid out.
Humans had free will to ignore divine guidance and the behavior required by maat , but by doing so they could bring divine punishment upon themselves.
Natural disasters and human ailments were seen as the work of angry divine ba s. Egyptian texts take different views on whether the gods are responsible when humans suffer unjustly.
Misfortune was often seen as a product of isfet , the cosmic disorder that was the opposite of maat , and therefore the gods were not guilty of causing evil events.
Some deities who were closely connected with isfet , such as Set, could be blamed for disorder within the world without placing guilt on the other gods.
Some writings do accuse the deities of causing human misery, while others give theodicies in the gods' defense. Because of this human misbehavior, the creator is distant from his creation, allowing suffering to exist.
New Kingdom writings do not question the just nature of the gods as strongly as those of the Middle Kingdom. They emphasize humans' direct, personal relationships with deities and the gods' power to intervene in human events.
People in this era put faith in specific gods who they hoped would help and protect them through their lives.
As a result, upholding the ideals of maat grew less important than gaining the gods' favor as a way to guarantee a good life.
Official religious practices, which maintained maat for the benefit of all Egypt, were related to, but distinct from, the religious practices of ordinary people,  who sought the gods' help for their personal problems.
Official religion involved a variety of rituals, based in temples. Some rites were performed every day, whereas others were festivals, taking place at longer intervals and often limited to a particular temple or deity.
Festivals often involved a ceremonial procession in which a cult image was carried out of the temple in a barque -shaped shrine. These processions served various purposes.
Such rituals were meant to be repetitions of the events of the mythic past, renewing the beneficial effects of the original events.
The returning greenery symbolized the renewal of the god's own life. Personal interaction with the gods took many forms. People who wanted information or advice consulted oracles, run by temples, that were supposed to convey gods' answers to questions.
The performer of a private rite often took on the role of a god in a myth, or even threatened a deity, to involve the gods in accomplishing the goal.
Prayer and private offerings are generally called "personal piety": acts that reflect a close relationship between an individual and a god.
Evidence of personal piety is scant before the New Kingdom. Votive offerings and personal names, many of which are theophoric , suggest that commoners felt some connection between themselves and their gods.
But firm evidence of devotion to deities became visible only in the New Kingdom, reaching a peak late in that era. They gave offerings of figurines that represented the gods they were praying to, or that symbolized the result they desired; thus a relief image of Hathor and a statuette of a woman could both represent a prayer for fertility.
Occasionally, a person took a particular god as a patron, dedicating his or her property or labor to the god's cult.
These practices continued into the latest periods of Egyptian history. The worship of some Egyptian gods spread to neighboring lands, especially to Canaan and Nubia during the New Kingdom, when those regions were under pharaonic control.
In Canaan, the exported deities, including Hathor, Amun, and Set, were often syncretized with native gods, who in turn spread to Egypt.
Taweret became a goddess in Minoan Crete ,  and Amun's oracle at Siwa Oasis was known to and consulted by people across the Mediterranean region.
These newcomers equated the Egyptian gods with their own, as part of the Greco-Roman tradition of interpretatio graeca.
Instead, Greek and Roman gods were adopted as manifestations of Egyptian ones. Egyptian cults sometimes incorporated Greek language , philosophy , iconography,  and even temple architecture.
Temples and cults in Egypt itself declined as the Roman economy deteriorated in the third century AD, and beginning in the fourth century, Christians suppressed the veneration of Egyptian deities.
In contrast, many of the practices involved in their worship, such as processions and oracles, were adapted to fit Christian ideology and persisted as part of the Coptic Church.
But many festivals and other traditions of modern Egyptians, both Christian and Muslim , resemble the worship of their ancestors' gods.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gods of Egypt. Deities in the Ancient Egyption religion. For the fantasy film, see Gods of Egypt film.
Funerals Offering formula Temples Pyramids. Deities list. Symbols and objects. Related religions. Main article: Atenism.
Some inanimate objects that represent deities are drawn from nature, such as trees or the disk-like emblems for the sun and the moon. Further information: Pharaoh.
Traditional African religion portal. The Egyptians avoided direct statements about inauspicious events such as the death of a beneficial deity. Nevertheless, the myth makes it clear that Osiris is murdered, and other pieces of evidence like the appearance of divine corpses in the Duat indicate that other gods die as well.
By the Late Period c. The Greek-derived term "ennead", which has the same meaning, is commonly used to translate it.
In the New Kingdom, goddesses were depicted with the same vulture-shaped headdress used by queens in that period,  and in Roman times, many apotropaic gods were shown in armor and riding on horseback like soldiers.
Recent scholarship has challenged that view and argued that the temple cult ceased to function in the late fifth century, sometime after the last dated signs of activity in or Allen, James P.
Jul—Aug Archaeology Odyssey. Cambridge University Press. In Redford, Donald B. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt.
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In Pongratz-Leisten, Beate ed. Reconsidering the Concept of Revolutionary Monotheism. Borgeaud, Philippe In Johnston, Sarah Iles ed. Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide.
Budde, Dagmar Wendrich, Willeke ed. Retrieved 4 April David, Rosalie Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt. Englund, Gertie a. In Englund, Gertie ed.
Academiae Ubsaliensis. Englund, Gertie b. Enmarch, Roland Frandsen, Paul John In Kousoulis, Panagiotis ed. Frankfurter, David Religion in Roman Egypt: Assimilation and Resistance.
Princeton University Press. Graindorge, Catherine Graves-Brown, Carolyn Dancing for Hathor: Women in Ancient Egypt.
Griffiths, J. Gwyn Gundlach, Rolf Hart, George Hornung, Erik [German edition ]. Translated by John Baines. Kadish, Gerald E. Kockelmann, Holger Kozloff, Arielle P.
Leitz, Christian Lesko, Barbara S. The Great Goddesses of Egypt. University of Oklahoma Press. Lesko, Leonard H. Lorton, David In Dick, Michael B.
Lucarelli, Rita Luft, Ulrich H. Luiselli, Michela Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods. Translated by G. Meeks, Dimitri Mills, Anthony J.
Montserrat, Dominic Akhenaten: History, Fantasy, and Ancient Egypt. Morenz, Siegfried [German edition ].
Ancient Egyptian Religion. Translated by Ann E. Morkot, Robert G. In Fisher, Marjorie M. Ancient Nubia: African Kingdoms on the Nile.
The American University in Cairo Press. Naerebout, Frederick Is It an Isis Temple? And So What? Nile into Tiber: Egypt in the Roman World.
Naguib, Saphinaz-Amal Ockinga, Boyo Pinch, Geraldine [First edition ]. His cult spread to Ethiopia, Nubia, Libya, and through much of Palestine.
The Greeks thought he was an Egyptian manifestation of their god Zeus. Even Alexander the Great thought it worthwhile consulting the oracle of Amun.
Protector of the Dead Anubis is shown as a jackal-headed man, or as a jackal. His father was Seth and his mother Nephythys.
His cult center was Cynopolis, now known as El Kes. He was closely associated with mummification and as protector of the dead.
It was Anubis who conducted the deceased to the hall of judgment. Originally an avenging lioness deity, she evolved into a goddess of pleasure.
Her cult center was in the town of Bubastis in the Western delta. Many cats lived at her temple and were mummified when they died.
An immense cemetery of mummified cats has been discovered in the area. Unlike the other gods, Bes is represented full face rather than in profile, as a grotesque, bandy-legged, dwarf with his tongue sticking out.
He was associated with good times and entertainment, but was also considered a guardian god of childbirth.
Bes chased away demons of the night and guarded people from dangerous animals. Hapi was not the god of the river Nile but of its inundation. He is represented as a pot-bellied man with breasts and a headdress made of aquatic plants.
He was thought to live in the caves of the first cataract, and his cult center was at Aswan. Hathor was the daughter of Ra and the patron goddess of women, love, beauty, pleasure, and music.
In this last manifestation, she holds the solar disc between her horns. There was a dark side to Hathor. It was believed that Ra sent her to punish the human race for its wickedness, but Hathor wreaked such bloody havoc on earth that Ra was horrified and determined to bring her back.
He tricked her by preparing vast quantities of beer mixed with mandrake and the blood of the slain. Murdering mankind was thirsty work, and when Hathor drank the beer she became so intoxicated that she could not continue her slaughter.
Each year the goddess Hathor visited her husband the god Horus at Edfu temple to celebrate the feast of the Divine Union.
Horus was the son of Osiris and Isis and the enemy of the wicked God Seth. He is depicted as a hawk or as a man with the head of a hawk.
He was the god of the sky and the divine protector of kings. Horus was worshipped throughout Egypt and was particularly associated with Edfu, the site of the ancient city of Mesen, where his temple can still be seen.
There are many stories of his wars against his uncle Seth, who murdered his father and usurped the throne. Eventually Horus defeated Seth and became the king of Egypt.
A very important figure in the ancient world, Isis was the wife of Osiris and mother of Horus. She was associated with funeral rites and said to have made the first mummy from the dismembered parts of Osiris.
As the enchantress who resurrected Osiris and gave birth to Horus, she was also the giver of life, a healer and protector of kings.
Isis is represented with a throne on her head and sometimes shown breastfeeding the infant Horus. Her most famous temple is at Philae though her cult spread throughout the Medi-terranean world and, during the Roman period, extended as far as northern Europe.
There was even a temple dedicated to her in London. Also known as, Khepri, Khepra, Khepera, Khepre was a creator god depicted as a Scarab beetle or as a man with a scarab for a head.
The Egyptians observed young scarab beetles emerging spontaneously from balls of dung and associated them with the process of creation. It was thought that Khepre rolled the sun across the sky in the same way a dung beetle rolls balls of dung across the ground.
Khnum, was depicted as a ram-headed man. He was a god of the cataracts, a potter, and a creator god who guarded the source of the Nile,.
His sanctuary was on Elephantine Island but his best-preserved temple is at Esna. He was a moon god depicted as a man with a falcon-head wearing a crescent moon headdress surmounted by the full lunar disc.
Like Thoth, who was also a lunar deity, he is sometimes represented as a baboon. Khonsu was believed to have the ability to drive out evil spirits.
Rameses II sent a statue of Khonsu to a friendly Syrian king in order to cure his daughter of an illness. She was depicted as a seated woman wearing an ostrich feather, or sometimes just as the feather itself.
Her power regulated the seasons and the movement of the stars. Ammut, devourer of the dead, ate those who failed her test. Montu was a warrior god who rose to become the state god during the 11th dynasty.
During the Twelfth Dynasty Montu was displaced by the rise of Amun, but he took on the true attributes of a war god when warrior kings such as Thutmose III and Rameses II identified themselves with him.
Mut formed part of the Theban Triad. She was one of the daughters of Ra, the wife of Amun, and mother of Khonsu. She was the Vulture goddess and is often depicted as a woman with a long, brightly colored dress and a vulture headdress surmounted by the double crown.
In her more aggressive aspect she is shown as a lion-headed goddess. Like Isis and Hathor, Mut played the role of divine mother to the king.
Her amulets, which depict her as a seated woman suckling a child, are sometime confused with those of Isis.
Together with Isis she was a protector of the dead, and they are often shown together on coffin cases, with winged arms.
She seems to have had no temple or cult center of her own. Osiris was originally a vegetation god linked with the growth of crops.
He was the mythological first king of Egypt and one of the most important of the gods. It was thought that he brought civilization to the race of mankind.
He was murdered by his brother Seth, brought back to life by his wife Isis, and went on to become the ruler of the underworld and judge of the dead.
He is usually depicted as a mummy holding the crook and flail of kingship. On his head he wears the white crown of Upper Egypt flanked by two plumes of feathers.
Sometimes he is shown with the horns of a ram. His skin is depicted as blue, the color of the dead; black, the color of the fertile earth; or green, representing resurrection.
Each year, during his festival, there was a procession and a reenactment of his story in the form of a mystery play. Ptah was a creator god, said to have made the world from the thoughts in his heart and his words.
He was depicted as a mummy with his hands protruding from the wrappings and holding a staff. His head was shaven and he wore a scull cap.
Ptah was associated with craftsmen, and the High Priest of his temple at Memphis held the title Great Leader of Craftsmen.